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Thread: An INTRO to Locomotives..Steam /Diesel Electric / Electric.

  1. #21
    Rusted Ananth's Avatar
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    Ah, Such beautiful information - I do not have any valuable query or inputs to add - Just popped in to say "Thanks for all the efforts & valuable information"

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    psr
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    Quote Originally Posted by Ananth View Post
    Ah, Such beautiful information - I do not have any valuable query or inputs to add - Just popped in to say "Thanks for all the efforts & valuable information"
    Thanks for your kind words of appreciation..after clarifying all Steam doubts...we will soon be starting with the Diesel Electric Locos....
    When Was The Last Time,You Did Something For The First Time.

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    psr
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    Here is a pictorial representation of the steam loco wheels,eccentrics, and components involved in forward and reverse movement of loco.



    1. Eccentric Crank 8. Radius Bar
    2. Eccentric Rod 9. Crosshead Arm
    3. Reach Rod 10. Valve Stem Guide
    4. Lifting Link 11. Union Link
    5. Lifting Arm 12. Combination Lever
    6. Reverse Arm & Shaft 13. Valve Stem
    7. Link (Expansion Link)14. Valve Spindle






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  4. #24
    psr
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    Each of the drive/power wheel has a counter balance integrated into it's design...This is to off set the ,Off center crank assembly,pin and drive to some extent...This counter balance is present on wheels of both sides with a 90 degree offset difference...


    As one crank is on dead center, the other is at the position of maximum torque, and the power strokes are evenly spaced throughout the driver rotation. What may not be obvious is that the counterbalances are doing more than simply statically balancing the crank pin, side rods, main rod, and eccentric crank on their respective sides. The main driver counterbalances are "tipped" to provide a force component on one side (eg: left) to cross-balance a rocking couple caused by the opposite (eg: right) side rods and eccentric crank about their own counterbalance weight. This cross balancing renders the axle/driver assembly in dynamic balance as well as static balance. This concept is applicable for all axles, but apparently was done only for the main axle where the additional mass and larger moment arm of the main rod and eccentric crank is much more significant. In the context of balance, it should be mentioned also that for this type of two cylinder (single cylinder per side) locomotive, the counterbalance weights balance all of the rotating mass per the above, but balance only a portion of the reciprocating mass.

    The wheels have robust ,leaf type springs for taking care of the suspension .








    Last edited by psr; 08-13-2012 at 11:24 AM.
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    I had shared and explained the basics of the Steam Locomotives,till now..I will wait for the next 2 days for queries and clarifications,after which we will move on to Diesel Electric Locomotives.
    When Was The Last Time,You Did Something For The First Time.

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    Rusted abhimanyu31's Avatar
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    ^^^ excellent. My physics teacher always told us that had IC engine been invented 20 years later, the development of steam engines would have reached a zenith that IC engines would never have been able to match. Waiting for the next part.
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    psr
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    We will have a brief look at the Rails which enables the Locomotive and wagons to roll on ,on their journey.The Rails are made of Steel Alloy and have special properties.They have to be malleable without being soft and bend with load, have to be stiff without breaking under load and stress ,...of varying on/off loading when the wheels pass over them,and should have good temperature coefficient of not contracting much,or expanding under different temperatures. The most popular Profile for the rail is the "I" section girder with the bottom portion flared wide for support and load bearing. A bull head type was also used ,but with the advent of the flared flat bottom type,it was phased out.


    They are widely grouped as Broad gauge,medium etc., depending on the distance between the rails...and varies from country to country
    Broad Gauge Breitspurbahn 3,000 mm (118.1 in) Brunel 2,140 mm (84.3 in) Indian 1,676 mm (66.0 in) Iberian 1,668 mm (65.7 in) Irish 1,600 mm (63.0 in) Russian 1,520 mm (59.8 in) Standard
    (Stephenson)
    1,435 mm (56.5 in) Medium Gauge Railway Scotch 1,372 mm (54.0 in) Cape 1,067 mm (42.0 in) Metre 1,000 mm (39.4 in) Narrow Gauge Railway Three foot 914 mm (36.0 in) Bosnian 760 mm (29.9
    These rails are mounted on what is called " Sleepers " to support them,and to take the load and distribute it. The sleepers are laid down on the ground with buffers to give strength,and at at the same time holding the rails in place without causing distortion under heat and load stress. This buffer is made of gravel and called "ballast"...



    Depending on the country,it's temperature, seismographic record, speed and load of the passing traffic this design varies.
    here are some pictures of various types of support..

    The older ,and now obsolete Wooden sleeper type



    The High speed Matt support type used in Japan..concrete sleepers



    The Ballast less full concrete type used for high speed train in CHINA.

    Last edited by psr; 08-13-2012 at 11:25 AM.
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  8. #28
    psr
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    Let us look at the Rail Joints which serve to connect the lengths of rail to make a continuous path for the train to move on...Broadly categorizing there are three types.. The Normal joint with Fish plate on both side and securing Nuts and Bolts, the second The Welded Joint, and the third the Isolated Joint for Signalling and track and train movement monitoring.
    The normal joints are made for Every length of the rail and leads to track creep and wear on loco and wagon wheels . The solution to this was found to be the Welded joint. This necessitated use of superior steel for the rails ,which had negligible heat expansion and contraction, and good load carrying capacity.
    Here is a picture of the common joint...




    here is a Picture of welded joint.



    here is a picture of the Insulated and glued joint...


    Last edited by psr; 08-13-2012 at 11:29 AM.
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    i missed this wonderful thread, will read in detail later, but nice thread.

  10. #30
    Rusted Saerius's Avatar
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    Psr sir,

    The section pic of the superheat did help in clearing my doubt.

    So did link about the mallet articulated compound locomotive (i have yet to finish reading up the entire article though, preparing for an exam of Industrial Electronics) I have a question, so the US mallets have simple expansion cylinders, woudnt that give them benefit over the compound expansion cylinder locomotives when they both breakdown? if one set of US Mallet cyl units fail, then the locomotive can chug back to the depot on the other pair, but what happens when the high pressure expansion units fail in the compound cyl setup. I feel that the answer to my question might be hidden in the link that you gave me, but still what do you say?

    I had no idea about the driver wheels also being dynamically balanced apart from just statical balance. In the back of my head i always thought that the cranks were 180 degrees apart, even before that i thought that they didnt have any offset. I blame Improperly designed toy trains.

    Ok now about rails, the Ballast is there to absorb the loads of the train in motion , to distribute it to the ground and in turn also give a softer uhm ride (for lack of words) ? Or does it do no such work of softening the load on the rail ,by allowing it to flex within elastic limits? If yes then how is rail life affected in ballast less full concrete sleepers?

    Glued joints or alumino thermic welded joints are still given expansion joints at certain distances too, right?
    When I die, I want to go peacefully like my Grandfather did, in his sleep -- not screaming, like the passengers in his car

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