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Thread: INFO: A Guide On Technical Jargons

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    Default INFO: A Guide On Technical Jargons

    Hi all

    There are a lot of guyz among us who wud like to understand all the tech talk that goes on around here (me being one of them). So iam posting the compilation of a post by one of our member 'Rare Devil' i cud n't find that topic but since I had it archived on my Hard disk drive i thought it would be a good idea to put up a compilation of that thread. Another reason for putting up this compilation is to reduce the number of posts having questions which have been answered previously on the forum & are in this guide.

    All are requested to give their inputs but please remember any out of topic posts will be deleted i want this thread to be purely informative in nature which will make for a good reading & will act as a referrence material. also suggest the definitions which you are not aware of & feel that it needs to be here, pls post it i'll post it in the upcoming jargons sections.

    Upcoming Jargons Section : If any of the member have information on the topics mentioned in the upcoming jargons section then kindly post them here.

    Important : guys these are not my view but of those expressed by some members of xBHp, i have just put a compilation & i will keep adding as & when i find more jargons

    As already mentioned these are member views, if u feel any of the definitions given here are wrong or misleading then kindly post the mistake & correct definitions.

    Thx
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    A Guide On Technical Jargons


    Fuel Tank : The metallic container that stores petrol in your bike. Located right in front of the seat.

    Fuel Gauge : Indicates the amount of fuel left in the fuel tank. Located at the front console along with the speedometer and other indicators.

    Fuel Tap : A rotating switch that regulates the flow of fuel from the fuel tank to the carburettor. Normally has three positions - Off, On and Reserve.

    Carburettor : An apparatus that mixes fuel with air in the right proportions before feeding the mixture into the combustion chamber.

    Combustion Chamber : (Also called Cylinder) A cylindrical chamber where air-fuel mixture fed by the carburretor is ignited using a spark plug to generate pressure high enough to push out a piston.

    Spark Plug : A device that uses electricity generated by an alternator to produce a spark that ignites the air-fuel mixture inside the cylinder.

    Power Stroke : The piston is at top dead center(we call this TDC), intake and exhaust valves are both closed and the spark plug has just fired(the CDI controls length/time of spark). The expansion of the ignited fuel/air mixture(which comes in from the carb.) forces the piston down. Before the piston reaches bottom dead center(BDC), the exhaust valve starts to open.

    Exhaust Stroke : The piston is at bottom dead center(BDC) and starts to come back up. The exhaust valve opens fully and starts to go closed. Before the piston reaches TDC, the intake valve starts to open and the exhaust valve is still partially open.

    Intake Stroke : The piston is now at TDC, both the intake and exhaust valves are partially open. As the piston travels back down the cylinder, the exhaust valve goes fully shut and the intake valve goes fully open and starts to shut.

    Compression Stroke : The piston is at BDC and starts to travel up the cylinder. The exhaust valve is still shut and the intake valve goes fully shut.

    Scavenging :After the fuel/air mixture is ignited, the expansion of the burning gases will be complete prior to the piston reaching BDC, but there will still be pressure contained in the cylinder. When the exhaust valve starts to open prior to the piston reaching BDC, some of the pressure in the cylinder will flow past the exhaust valve into the heads exhaust port. As the piston starts its travel back up the cylinder, the piston forces the remaining gasses in the cylinder out through the exhaust port. The velocity of the exhaust gasses flowing past the valve into the port creates a negative pressure (vacuum) in the combustion chamber .Prior to the piston reaching TDC(BTDC-before top dead center), the intake valve starts to open. The previously created vacuum in the combustion chamber will draw fresh air/fuel mixture into the combustion chamber and some will even escape into the exhaust. This will ensure that all of the spent gasses are removed from the combustion chamber(this is where everything takes place). This process is called "scavenging".

    Back Pressure : (Courtsey : Tyke)
    A better defintion for back pressure is the pressure within a system caused by fluid friction or an induced resistance to flow through the system. In any IC (Internal Combustion Engine) the burnt gases need to be either blown out (2-stroke) or pushed out (4-stroke). Now the gases dont happily travel through the maze of pipes we call the exhaust pipe. There is the basic fluid friction against the walls. The silencers or more technically mufflers are sections which are essentially restrictions intentionally built into the exhaust system to smoothen out the strong pulse of the exhaust (caused by the valve or port cracking open). So you have opposition to the gas flow. Now what do u think happens as the engine tries to stuff more and more burnt gases down the throat of this pipe? Obviously, the volume is not increasing so pressure has to go up. Voila! Back pressure. The greater the back pressure, the more work the engine has to do to push the burnt gases out. Less usable power output at the crank.

    So what does a free-flow do? Reduce back pressure. How? Remove restrictions. Now the gases flow freely, but they dont flow continuously. There are strong pulses of high pressure gases followed by brief lulls. What is that in human equivalents? A very loud noise (Although some people will beg to differ and call it music :-) )
    About it being a mechanism for preventing air/fuel misture from escaping through the exhaust valve, this is true, but misses the point.

    Alternator : A rotating device connected to the engine which when rotated by the engine, generates electricity to power the spark plugs and headlights and also to recharge batteries.

    Over Head Camshaft : OHC (Over head cam) layout was the solution to the problem of inertia of the venerable push-rod design. At high RPM, push rod engine valves dont shut (called valve float). So to reduce the mass of the moving parts, they brought the cam closer to the valves, made the valves lighter (Latest ones are ceramic and ultra-light). Valves are on the head, cam close to valves means OHC. Then they found the rockers which are mandatory for Single OHC or SOHC also too much mass. Hence the advent of the Double OHC or DOHC. Performance improves simply because the engine can rev more freely and the efficiency improves as valve sealing improves.

    Types of Valves : there are only two type of valves in an internal combustion engine:

    a) Inlet Valve : the inlet valve as the name implies are the valves
    through which the fuel/air mixture is inducted into the cylinder

    b) Exhaust Valve : exhaust valves are the scavenging valves and open up after the power stroke to release the spent gases..

    What is the difference between an exhaust valve and an intake one?

    Answer :
    The perfection in the fulfillment of cylinders in engines is never carried out absolutely. In spite of this inconvenient and in order to obtain a high thermical performance, we detail some solutions found by engine builders:

    With the adoption of accurate valves
    With a suitable lift of them
    With an advantageous valves' arrangement
    With an optimum timing setting

    If we observe a cylinder head, we will note that the intake valves diameter is bigger than the exhaust's (except for multivalves engines)in general. The mixture entrance in the combustion chamber is limited by the action of atmospheric pressure (it changes according to height at sea level).
    On the other hand, the exit of the burnt gases is produced in very different conditions than the ones described before. The residual pressure of burnt gases (after their expansion) is bigger than the atmospheric pressure. The action produced by the piston rise favors the increase of speed of gases ejection.

    A) Head diameter of the intake valve is 20% or 25% bigger than the exhaust's, in order to make it easier to fill up cylinders.

    B) If the diameter of the exhaust valve is smaller, there will be less volume exposed to hot gases, so the quantity of accumulated heat is reduced.

    C) Mixture temperatures before and after the ignition are very different. The exhaust valve is exposed to receive more heat (temperature = 1300 F), so the structure, materials and heat treatments are not the same as the ones of the intake valve (temperature = 400 F).

    D) The seat contact of valve - insert is generally wider than in an intake valve.
    E) The exhaust stem guide clearance, because of reasons of different temperature, is also bigger than the intake one.

    Courtesy: http://www.bassoassist.com.ar/


    CC of an engine : CC is the swept volume. The formula for calculating the swept volume is the square of the radius of bore multiplied
    by the stroke multiplied by pie (i.e. 22/7) and if your bore/stroke measurements are in mm then divide by 1000 to get swept volume in cc.

    eg. Zma

    bore = 65.5 mm
    stroke = 66.2 mm
    radius of bore = 65.5/2 = 32.75 mm
    so swept volume = (32.75 * 32.75 * 66.2 * 22) dividived by 7 * 1000
    which is = 223.154 cc

    Stroke Length : It is the distance the piston travels from Top Dead Center(TDC) to BDC(Bottom Dead Center). These 'centers' are those positions in which any force on the piston does not produce rotational motion. hence they are respectively the top-most and bottom-most positions

    Rotary Engines :Rotary engines don't have regular pistons which go up and down along cylinder . Instead a triangular rotor rotates in one direction ( so no reversing of direcntion ) , and forms 3 chambers in which the combustion , intake and exhaust process occur simultaneously . Generally there is a single rotor ( so 3 chambers ) but I have heard of a twin rotor rotary engine .

    Rotary engines rev very high , are smooth and relatively vibratio-free , but earlier were more polluting , thirsty for fuel and complicated , with difficulties in sealing the gas inside effectively , but the RX8 engine is very good having won best engine award against rivals from other well known makes

    Normally aspirated engines are those which don't have any type of force-feeding as in turbocharged or supercharged engines. I guess the force-fed ones are not called 'abnormally aspirated engines'!


    Turbocharger and Supercharger

    Both turbochargers and superchargers are called forced induction systems. They compress the air flowing into the engine (see How Car Engines Work for a description of airflow in a normal engine). The advantage of compressing the air is that it lets the engine stuff more air into a cylinder. More air means that more fuel can be stuffed in, too, so you get more power from each explosion in each cylinder. A turbo/supercharged engine produces more power overall than the same engine without the charging.

    The typical boost provided by either a turbocharger or a supercharger is 6 to 8 pounds per square inch (psi). Since normal atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi at sea level, you can see that you are getting about 50-percent more air into the engine. Therefore, you would expect to get 50-percent more power. It's not perfectly efficient, though, so you might get a 30-percent to 40-percent improvement instead.

    The key difference between a turbocharger and a supercharger is its power supply. Something has to supply the power to run the air compressor. In a supercharger, there is a belt that connects directly to the engine. It gets its power the same way that the water pump or alternator does. A turbocharger, on the other hand, gets its power from the exhaust stream. The exhaust runs through a turbine, which in turn spins the compressor (see How Gas Turbine Engines Work for details).

    There are tradeoffs in both systems. In theory, a turbocharger is more efficient because it is using the "wasted" energy in the exhaust stream for its power source. On the other hand, a turbocharger causes some amount of back pressure in the exhaust system and tends to provide less boost until the engine is running at higher RPMs. Superchargers are easier to install but tend to be more expensive.


    And as far as Indian bikes are concerned, they are all normally aspirated.

    Compresion Ratio:
    Compression ratio if defined quite simply as the volume above the piston at bottom-dead-center (BDC), divided by the volume above the piston at top-dead-center (TDC).

    Just learnt that effective CR changes according to engine rpm, cam duration, etc. Explains why late closing of intake valve increases top end.
    http://e30m3performance.com/myths/mo...comp_ratio.htm

    All you guys who want to know how much increase will be there in hp after increase in CR, check this site:
    http://www.bgsoflex.com/crchange.html


    Two Stroke & Four Stroke Engines

    The 2-stroke engine takes just two strokes (or cycles) to complete its power delivery.
    The only moving parts inside a 2-stroke engine are the crankshaft, the connecting rod and the piston.There is a power stroke whenever the piston travels downward, they are capable of producing tremendous power.
    At the bottom of the power stroke, the transfer ports, which deliver fresh fuel, are open at the same time as the exhaust port. This allows a significant amount of fresh fuel to run straight through the engine without ever being available for power production.Thus the low fuel mileage...

    Also 4 stroke flywheels are heavier to carry it thru the non-power cycles.
    Another reason why 4 strokes are heavier than two-strokes is all the extra gears and stuff to drive the valves.
    2T oil simply because the crankcase in a 2 stroke is sealed off . The only way for oil to reach there is to go in with the petrol and condense onto the crankcase.

    CDI : Capacitor Discharge Ignition : to put it in simple words, a capacitor is fist charged, then discharged accross the electrodes of the spark plug. this causes the spark.

    Anybody who learnt about dielectrics and capacitors during school or college will recollect that the capacitor discharges exponentially. So the idea is to charge a cap and discharge it through the primary of the induction coil. Since it discharges really fast, you get a much higher voltage than with the contact breaker(CB) points and a nice fat spark. The Cap value has to be optimised to the specific RPM range of the engine. Too much and it wont charge properly at high RPM. Too little and it wont work well at low RPM. This is the heart of a CDI. There is some more electronics to get the timing advance/retard, but they are mostly dicey and dont merit much mention.

    The above also explains why different bikes have specific CDIs designed for them.

    Points : earlier ignition systems (before the advent of CDI) used to use CB points. you had a distributor which leads going to the different spark plugs. a conductor mounted on an axis would rotate in the disributor. so this way it would touch the end points of the leads, making a circuit. a high voltage coil was used to generate the potential difference.

    Ignition Types (Courtsey : Ajith)

    TPS: Throttle position sensor. Usually connected to an engine management unit to optimise any variable parameters. Especially in fuel injected engines which must have electronic engine management.

    AMI: Hero-Honda speak for Advanced Microprocessor-controlled Ignition. A step in the right direction. It iss high time we had digital CDIs to get the best out of any engine. These have been around for ages in other countries.

    CCVI: Carb Controlled Variable Ignition, Hero-Honda speak for a TPS(see above) based ignition timing adjust mechanism. A sensor detects the position of the throttle and the "Advanced Microprocessor-controlled Ignition" adjusts the advance or retard based on the same. This is no voltage control.

    And for the record, fiddling with the TPS to get "165" will cause more harm than benefit.

    IGNITION WITH A DIGITAL C.D.I
    A digital CDI with a 8 bit microprocessor chip handles the spark delivery. The programmed chips memory contains an optimum ignition timing for any given engine rpm, there by obtaining the best performance characteristics from the combustion chamber. Working together with the TRICS III system, it delivers optimum ignition timing for varying conditions

    Digital Mapping

    hmm lets think of maps as a set of formulas. take a honda vtec engine for example. at low speeds, you have less lift of the valves, retarded ignition. at higher speeds, you have more lift, advanced igniton. so here we have 2 maps for low speed and high speed. and to advise the ecu which map to use, it is connected to a throttle position sensor in the throttle body or probably and rpm meter.

    btw its just an example. what i've written above is not what happens for the vtec!

    electronic timing: as engine rpms keep increasing, the ignition needs to be advanced. in case of the distributor, the timing was mechnaical, the faster the engine would rotate. the faster the conductor wud rotate on the axis .... i think the cdi takes its timing of the crank.

    What is the Rake and Trail steering, as used in the Pulsars?

    Rake = angle of steering head/forks from the vertical

    Trail = distance of centre of tyre contact patch from the point where the imaginary line of the steering head meets the ground .

    Pulsar's rake and trail are 27degrees and 107mm as per Overdrive

    Power Vs. Torque.

    There used to be 2 camps. The power freaks and the torque freaks. Now most people have begun to realise that one does not live in isolation of the other. So here goes.

    Torque first. Torque is the twisting force of the engine. How much force the engine can apply at rotating the rear wheel will define how fast ur vehicle will pick up speed. Torque can be requierd in different ranges based on what the riding application is.
    Dirt Track : Most riding is done at low -mid RPM range (unless u are really a pro and can keep the engine boiling). So Max torque in that range
    SBK : Here u will notice that the stretches are nearly level and the engine can be kept boiling much more easily. Hence here people look for torque up high. (there is another reason to look for it this high. explained below)

    Now about power. Power = work done in unit time. So it is not enough if the engine develops lots of torque at the rear wheel, it should also spin up the wheel to good RPM so u travel fast. the faster u have to travel, the more power (BHP) u need. In rotary motion terms, Power = Torque * RPM.
    Here we go back to SBK ( Super BiKing ). Those bikes need to develop serious power. The maximum can be squeezed out of an engine (with no regard to reliability ) if u can rev it to dizzying RPMs and also develop torque at those RPMs.

    How do these matter to each other.

    Torque without Power implies low RPM limits. That obviously gets u nowhere. U cant get to any speed so the whole purpose is lost.

    Power without torque?? Lotsa RPM but it will take u forever to reach it. So u can even hit the speed of light, but u should live long enough.

    TRISC III SYSTEM
    Throttle Responsive ignition control system iiird generation. It is a means of controlling the ignition by operating the throttle . depending on the needs of the rider whether it be cruising, acceleration, or max aped, the ignition requirements constantly change. Based on particular amount of throttle opening, the magnetic field generated by the magnet opens or closes the read switch. The read switch is connected to the digital CDI which signals the CDI to change/switch, the desired ignition advance timing maps, this helps in achieving a good balance between drivability and optimum ignition spark advance, resulting in an almost perfect ignition spark advance for every throttle opening the engine rpm.

    DTSi ENGINE:

    The DTSi DIGITAL TWIN SPARK IGNITION technology is a Revolution in the modern motorcycling era ( It can be also seen on the new Honda City)
    Currently one spark plug at one end of the combustion chamber is the conventional Practice. The flame front created by the spark takes some time to reach the farthest Portion of the combustion chamber which leads to slower burning of the air-fuel Mixture and creates limitations in optimizing the combustion chamber characteristics 2 spark plugs at either ends of the combustion chamber help in faster and better combustion.

    YEIS : stands for Yamaha Energy Induction System. This is another name for the Induction resonator. If you look closely at the intake manifold (or pipe) of an RX, you will see a rubber pipe with a spring around it emerge at right angles to the Carb and disappear under the tank. At the other end of the rubber pipe is the Induction resonator.

    TPFC (Courtsey : Ajith)
    Transient Power Fuel Control : Hero-Honda-speak for a supplementary fuel feed mechanism in the CBZ. The CBZ carb has a plunger type (syringe style) fuel pump activated by the throttle when it is opened fully. The idea is to squirt some fuel into the engine to richen the mixture temporarily and provide a spurt of power required to overtake. It has been around for sometime. Experience seems to indicate little practical value tho'. Most bikes will suddenly feel a little stronger if u momentarily shut the throttle and open it again. This is due to the strong suction effect created by a completely shut throttle on a running engine. The mixture suddenly becomes a little richer and the piston cools a little, reducing friction against the walls. The TPFC does not seem to even have a comparable effect. Probably explains why HH wisely discarded the option on the Kari.

    Steering Dampers: (Courtesy : nikhilsc/Ajith)

    These are Similar to dampers used in shocks. They resist sudden change in direction, hence vibrations from bumpy roads won't get transmitted to your hands

    Steering Dampers : Quick. Which one turns easier? An RX or an eliminator? The RX of course. The RX front end has a more unstable setup leading to very little turning effort. The price that you pay is an alarming tendency to wobble. If something is slightly out of whack (mebbe even a pebble on the road), the front end suddenly turns into a flag in the wind and waves from side to side. When this happens at a time when u are leaned over negotiating a turn, the inside handle grip will violently swing at the side of the tank. Hence also the term "tank slapper". This is very dangerous when uncontrolled. Typically worsens when u need to brake into turns, leading to unfortunate/inexperienced riders being brought down.

    Very similar to suspension dampers, steering dampers are used to reduce this tendency of highly responsive front-ends to wave like a flag. They let the rider turn the handle slowly without much effort. But the trademark rapid movement of wobble will be ironed out due to the high resistance the damper puts on quick movements.

    Here is some good stuff. Take a look at http://www.guzzitech.com/SteeringDamp-Ed_M.html

    Swing arms and its Types: (Courtesy : joeljoe2003)

    swing arms are divided into 2 categories,

    1) Single sided swing arms
    2) Double sided swing arms

    [u]Single sided swing arms are box type and they do not flex sideways under high speeds and they remain stable undr all conditions.monoshox have a single shox at the joint of the swing arm and the rest of the swing-arm is strenghtened in-order to resist the impact.usually these dampers r more stiff than the dual shox as they carry the entire weight of the bike.they r also adjustable and the tension can be increased or decreased according to the road condition.while high speed cornering its always good to stick to the stiffer mode coz the shox may bottom-out fully and will reduce the stability as well.

    [u]Double sided swing arm Those found on all our indian bikes.they are again classified under 2 categories-

    a)Round swing arm
    b)Box swing arm.

    [u]Round swing-arm causes a flexing affect and is not stiff under cornering and can lead to imbalance. They find good use on bad roads.most of the bikes in india now have [u]Box swing arms right from the executive segment bikes till the high end zmas.they r stiff and provide good stability under cornering and can really give good tarmac stability.these swing-arms have shox on both the arms and they r good for carrying heavy loads and do not bottom that easily.bottom-out is a phenomena where the shock-absorber reaches the maximum travel length and the coiled springs hit each other.in some cases the wheels of the vehicle hit the mudguard and causes serious stability problems.

    Disk Brakes(in bikes) (Courtesy : joeljoe2003)

    Disc brakes are hydraulic brakes system that works using the oil pressure.

    A typical disc brake has the following parts :

    [u]1.Master Cylinder - that which is located on the handle and holds the brake fluid.

    [u]2.Rubber Brake Hose -os the part part which transmits the brake fluid from the master cylinder to the caliper located on the fork.In short its the pipeline for the fluid to flow.

    [u]3.A Caliper - is the one which transforms the pressure created in the master cylinder into mechanical force by pushing the pads against the disc.

    [u]4.The Disc - It is mounted on the wheel and is a steel plate which is sandwiched by the pads on either sides and stops the wheel.

    [u]5.The pressure is created and the brake feel is improved by a process called bleeding i.e.filling oil in the master cylinder and losening the nut on the caliper and pressing the brake lever so that the oil flows freely through the hose without any air block and the nut at the caliper is tightened accordingly.disc brakes shud be a bit spongy otherwise the wheels will skid but again thats as per personal preference.The brake pads are made of the same material as the usual drum brake pads but with more bronze and metal particles.
    To view the working of a disc brake log on to the link:http://www.royalenfield.com/discbrakework.asp and u shud clear all ur curiosity in knowing them.

    A usual 150-200cc bike will have a 240mm dia disc like the ones on f2,p180,cbz etc a higher cc bike like karizma has a 276mm disc and a comet-300mm,t-bird etc has a 280mm disc and the pads r also strengthened as the cc is more coz the stress involved in stopping them is high.

    Disc brakes are self adjusting and maintenance free .the pistons in the caliper adjusts by itself as the pads wear out so there is not need to make any adjustments like on drum brakes so they r easy to maintain.but make it a point u change the oil every 18000kms with a dot-3 brake fluid.pads have a cut marking on them so if its worn beyond the mark change immediately otherwise the metal housing of the pad will rub against the disc and file the disc away and will shorten the disc thickness.

    [u]Tip :During rainy seasons wipe the sides on the disc if its dirty .if u ride it constantly in rain remove the caliper from the fork once every 500kms or whenever necessary and clean the pads.make sure that the clip that holds the left pad does not loose its position.clean the caliper thoroughly with water and wipe the piston and other casr iron parts.never apply oil anywhere on the caliper coz even a drop can screw the braking if it touches the disc.also check for leaks at the caliper banjo bolts and rub the hand gently on the disc surface to notice if there is any uneven wear of the disc.change pads when the cut on the pad is faded.

    Fully Adjustable Suspension(Courtesy : bikecrazy)

    Im sure many of you have heard bout a fully adjustable suspensions in the bike specs.

    well there are 3 main things to a fully adjustable suspension.

    [u]1. Preload: which baiscally means how hard the suspension is gonna be , more preload means stiffer suspension and an increased ride height and vice versa. As a thumb rule Heavier riders need to dial in more preload as the suspension is gonna sag more when they get on the bike.

    [u]2.Compression Dampning: Means how fast the suspension is gonna compress when it encounters a bump, so the name compression dampning, more compression dampning means its gonna compress slowly when it goes over a bump. and vice versa.

    [u]3.Rebound Dampning: Mean's how fast the suspension is gonna return back from the compression stroke. So If u dial in more Rebound dampning the suspension is going to decompress more slowly after it has compressed and vice versa.

    these were the main terms .

    there are more like fastbump and slowbump rebound and compression dampning.. which are used in race bikes..


    Wet & Dry Sump Engines(Courtesy : bikecrazy)

    [u]Wet Sump engine:The most common kind of lubrication system for internal combustion engines. In these kinds of engines oil is basically stored in a storage area or "sump" beneath the crankshaft. An oil pump then pumps oil all round the engine.

    [u]Dry Sump engine: This is the second type of lubrication system ,in which oil is stored in a seperate tank here we got 2 oil pumps, one to pump oil to all parts of the engine and another to pump the used oil ( for want of a better term) back to the oil tank.

    why use dry sump engines?

    during hard accleration and cornering in a wet sump engine vital engine parts like the crank shaft can be left dry as the oil has sloshed to one side.. u get the picture.. also there is some BHP gains in a dry sump engine as the crank does not have swim through the oil as in a wet sump engine

    down side to dry sump engines is that they are very complex and expensive to build.. coz of all the intricate oil passage ways

    out of the bikes i think only the Aprilia RSVR and the Dukes have got Dry Sump motor's..

    Desmodromic valve actuation system(Courtesy : bikecrazy)

    [u]Desmodromic valve actuation system: popularly known simply as "desmo" is the valve actuation system used exclusively by Ducati's.
    As you all know in most 4 stroke internal combustion engine's the valves are pushed down(opened) by a camshaft and close by spring action. Ducati argued that at very high RPM some thing known as "Valve Float" occurs which simply means that the valve springs fail to close the valves fast enough.

    Ducati solved this problem by inventing the Desmodromic system where the valves open and close via cam shafts ie both actions of closing and opening the valve's are performed actively as opposed to just opening the valves actively and closing them passively in a normal engine.

    This type of system has been used in all Ducati's after it was invented of course, and is also one of the reasons why Ducatis have that mesmerizing exhaust note and the godawful racket at idling..

    one of the notations they use is "Desmoquattro" quattro is italian for four , so it means a desmo engine with 4valves per cylinder.

    HRC(Courtesy : bikecrazy)

    [u]Honda Racing Company or Corporation the term given to honda's racing division..which is a seperate entity altogether ,deals and concentrates solely on all aspects of motorbike racing in honda

    Countersteering and The Vanishing point (Courtesy : bikecrazy)

    [u]Countersteering: Quite a few ppl must have heard about "counter steering" ,who does it and what does it do?

    To answer the second one first, all of us riding bikes do it, knowingly or unknowingly.. without counter steering it would be next to impossible to steer a motorbike as quick as is required .. next time ur riding try to steer the Bike into a turn with minimal effort from the handle, all the turning done by shifting the body weight .. dont fall off ..kk..not easy is it..?

    This is where counter steering comes in :Practical example, well take a left hand turn.. as you are approaching the left hander give handle bar on the inside of the turn a slight push (ie. if ur turning left give the left handle bar a push forward).. what you are doing in effect is turning the handle to the right...agreed?...But what happens next? the bike starts going left. Try the same for a right hander but this time give a slight push on the right handle bar.

    The harder u push the bars the more quickly the bike turns in the opposite direction.

    one more thing to try( for a left hander) is to push the left bar and pull the right bar , this has an even greater effect of counter steering.opposite goes for a right hander.

    Keeping this in mind approach a sharp left hander with more speed than you normally would and just as u see the apex counter steer into the turn really sharply ie push the bar with a bit more force, you might be surprised at the out come .

    Counter steering is also really help in a fast sweeping corner where if u need to adjust ur line just give the bars a push in the direction oposite to where u want to go. So in a fast left hander if u think ur going too tight give the right bar a slight push and the bike will stand up a bit . problem solved..

    Another thing should be said at this point is that counter steering is only really effective once ur speed crosses the 20- 25kmph mark.

    As I said before this is not some thing new you've learnt you do it everyday when u are riding but having a better understanding of it will help you ride much faster and safer.

    [u]The Vanishing Point:Another major riding techique is the vanishing point principle.vanishing point is that point in the road ahead of you where the left and right curbs of the corner meet creating an illusion that the road vanishes ahead.

    Simply put, always look where you want to be on the road rather than where u are actually going.. Might sound stupid but as a case in point take any picture of Rossi going around a bend, his head is always turned around and looking for the exit of the corner or the next corner if thats feasible.But thats on a race track. It's not much dfferent on the road, always try to look around the corner( find the exit) you are going around .
    youll find that you can brake later and accelerate out of the corner much earlier if you already know how the corner is. (tight or opening up).

    Another example of looking where u want to be .Imagine this scenario, uve gone in too hot for a corner and are starting to drift to the outside ,trees on the side fast approaching ,,if there is the minutest chance that you can avoid being a part of the scenery, this is it, dont look at the trees or wht ever is on the side of the road its friggin difficult but try to tear ur eyes from the impending disaster and look where youd rather be on the road and steer accordingly.

    If on the other hand you keep on looking at the tree. thats where you will end up.

    Also dont think I need to say this but.. still.. try out whtever ive said here in low or no traffic area's.

    Hope I was clear enough +ve feedback welcome ...


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    what is meant by blue printing a bike ?
    Love like you\'ve never been hurt.
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    From what I know, manufacturers never have parts made exactly to specifications in the original blueprints for the bike. there is always an error of ~.5% in the values. if there is an error of this magnitude in every part used , it brings down the performance from optimum levels. blueprinting means slowly going thru each and every screw and every other part and making it to exact specifications either by modifying the part or by replacing it. then you get optimum performance. i don't know who does it or how much it costs. try searching the threads for that info.

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    thanx for the help. ahem

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    thanx for the help. ahem

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    The Displacement formula should be changed a little:-->

    Displacement in cc = (Bore x Bore x Stroke x No. of Cylinders) x 11/ 14,000

    Bore & Stroke are in millimeters ... Say Hayabusa,

    cc = (81 x 81 x 65 x 4) x 11/ 14,000 = 6561 x 260 x 11/ 14,000

    1705860 x 11/ 14000 = 1340.03 cc


    ---
    Also, DTS Fi: Digital Twin Spak Fuel injection: The technology of Fuel Injection used along with a Single Cylinder Engine, having 2 Spark Plugs to ensure effective combustion for good mileage, instant starts, environmental friendliness & good throttle response.

    Currently, used on only by Bajaj & on Pulsar 220 DTS Fi, many anticipate this to be found soon on Pulsar 200 too.


    ---
    DTS Si: Digital Twin Spark Swirl induction: The straight ports used in conventional engines have limitations in generating high swirl values due to their geometry. To generate the required level of swirl, an offset port configuration was arrived upon and optimised by Bajaj engineers.
    Incorporated in the new engine, this results in a swirling motion of the incoming charge, which decays itself into turbulence as the piston moves in the Induction and Compression strokes. This results in the air-fuel mixture being more thoroughly mixed and spread around the combustion chamber.
    Sparks provided by the twin spark plugs ignite this highly turbulent and compressed air-fuel mixture, leading to a flame front with high surface area, resulting in a rapid rise of pressure due to quick combustion.

    The best results of this technology like high mileage, torque, etc. have enabled it to be used on Commuter Vehicles first, like Bajaj XCD 125 DTS Si & Platina 125 DTS Si. It is expected to be on XCD Sprint too.

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    What is a seized engine?

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    Quote Originally Posted by pavanchirmade View Post
    What is a seized engine?
    A seized engine is an engine that has stopped working. Even the smallest amount of oxide (rust deposit) between a piston ring and a cylinder wall, even in just one cylinder, can easily lock up a 400HP engine!

    It maybe caused due to not using it for long time. Poor storage conditions account for more engines being seized than any other factor.

    Airborne humidity and rainwater are the main culprits.Corrosion between cylinder walls, pistons and piston rings starts immediately once water or water vapor enters the engine. Corrosion (rust) forms immediately, causing your engine to seize.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Samarth 619 View Post
    A seized engine is an engine that has stopped working. Even the smallest amount of oxide (rust deposit) between a piston ring and a cylinder wall, even in just one cylinder, can easily lock up a 400HP engine!

    It maybe caused due to not using it for long time. Poor storage conditions account for more engines being seized than any other factor.

    Airborne humidity and rainwater are the main culprits.Corrosion between cylinder walls, pistons and piston rings starts immediately once water or water vapor enters the engine. Corrosion (rust) forms immediately, causing your engine to seize.


    What exactly do u mean by engine that is not working?Does the piston get jammed in the cylinder and doesnot move at all?? Also I've heard that prolonged high speed runs [above red line] also causes the same. Can anyone shed some light on it?

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    Quote Originally Posted by pavanchirmade View Post
    What exactly do u mean by engine that is not working?Does the piston get jammed in the cylinder and doesnot move at all?? Also I've heard that prolonged high speed runs [above red line] also causes the same. Can anyone shed some light on it?
    yes, Piston jamming is what I mean, be it due to rust, or whatever. Regarding Red line runs, I think it results in damage of Oil Restricting seal on the piston... The seal which protects oil from entering combustion area, as I read on Xbhp somewhere ...

    but take my info with a pinch of salt, I'm not sure about it.

    Can anyone share more info on this?

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